the other philosophy

Lacan’s innovation was to re-interpret Freud’s theories of the unconscious in terms of the dialectic of Self and Other, rather than in terms of the biological impulses hypothesized by Freud. Continental philosophy, right up to the present day, has continued to investigate this idea, which has received little attention from the Analytic tradition.

Against the anthropomorphic assumptions of the philosophical tradition, the literary “other” may not even be human: it may be a dog (as in the novels of Coetzee), a tree (as in Chekhov’s endangered and eponymous cherry orchard), a machine (as in the science fiction novels of Philip K Dick), a ghost (as in the genre of Gothic fiction), or even a talking horse (as in the Houyhnhms of Swift’s, Ideally, every “other” should be read like a Henry James novel: finely detailed, vivid, richly textured, full of subtleties and nuances, the sum value of which cannot be exhausted by the analyses of either a Cavell or a Nussbaum (assiduous though their approaches might be). Sundar Sarukkai. Such categories were expounded by Kant in his Critique of Pure Reason (1781), although in fact ‘An Other Person’ is not one of the categories Kant discussed in that book. You’ve read one of your four complimentary articles for this month. He is what I am not” Levinas. A classic response to this question, echoed by many later writers, was given by John Stuart Mill: “I conclude that other human beings have feelings like me, because, first, they have bodies like me, which I know in my own case to be the antecedent condition of feelings; and because, secondly, they exhibit the acts, and other outward signs, which in my own case I know by experience to be caused by feelings.”An Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy, 1865, A sceptical challenge to Mill’s conclusion has been pursued in recent years by the thought experiment of the ‘philosophical zombie’, popularized by David Chalmers. Like me, the other is a consciousness that thinks of the world and interprets itself. We borrow and use language from a source outside ourselves – the big Other. Until Hegel, the question of otherness had no right of city, solipsism (only the subject existed) still prevailed in Descartes and classical philosophers. Civilizations are only particular expressions of one and the same species, one and the same humanity. G.W.F. Literature, through representing “the other” without any overt or covert philosophical agenda, represents that which resists complete thematization, from the world of Carroll’s Wonderland, which logical and metaphysical discourses reject, to the world of Lady Chatterley which moral discourse impugns. But in this state of culture man is torn between two antagonistic things: This “unsociable sociability”, which will allow beyond the disorder and paradoxically put in place a culture, a civilization, effective sociability. Independent from any institution or philosophical thought, the site is maintained by a team of former students in human sciences, now professors or journalists. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. (Philip Goff gave a good account of this debate in the zombie-themed issue of Philosophy Now, Issue 96.). ( Log Out /  How can I have access to interiority, to the interiority of a consciousness that is not mine? The God of heaven is accessible without losing anything of his transcendence, but without denying the freedom of the believer “(Ethics and Infinity), Levinas: “The face speaks” (Ethics and Infinity), Husserl: “I do not apprehend the other simply as my double.

Après moi, le déluge – or, in this case, the literary “other” which demands to be recognized and embraced. ), then it is the nature of literature both to address philosophical themes, Nasreen Sultana Rahman (editor and proofreader), Hybridity as a Problem in J. M. Coetzee’s Youth, Introductory Essay: “The Other” and “Othering”, Kristina Leganger Iversen’s “Hjartemekanikk”, Other literature: Neil Gaiman and China Mièville, Otherness and the black body in “Beloved”, Filling the gap: The Latehomecomer as a Hidden History of America. Peter Benson studied Analytic Philosophy at Cambridge in the 70s, and Continental Philosophy over many subsequent years of classes, reading groups, and personal research. The presence of others is therefore also, for me, the assurance of an externality, of the existence of something other than my only relation to the world. Know first of all that there is no single answer to this question. Hegel: “Since it is necessary that each of the two self-consciousnesses, who oppose each other, strive to manifest and assert themselves before the other and for the other, as an absolute being-for-self, thereby the one who has preferred life to freedom and who is powerless to make, by itself and to ensure its independence, abstraction of its present sensible reality, thus enters into the relationship of servitude “(Phenomenology of the mind), Sartre: “Another is the other, that is to say the self which is not me” (Being and Nothingness), Sartre: “Another is this self from which nothing separates me, absolutely nothing except its pure and total freedom” (Being and Nothingness), Sartre: “The Other is the mediator between me and myself […] The For-Self refers to the For-Others” (Being and Nothingness), Derrida: “As long as the other as other has not been in some way” welcomed “in the epiphany, in the withdrawal or the visitation of his face, there can be no sense in speaking of peace.
To extend the analogy, philosophers seeking to encompass the un-encompassable literary “other” may be likened to Swift’s Yahoos, with their deformed though human appearance and mere semblance of reason. Contemporary psychologists have called our awareness of Others a ‘theory of mind’, by which they mean an ability to recognise that other people have minds, and thence to make deductions concerning what the other person may be thinking. Based on this, a radical revision of.

This struggle is what makes the man come out of idleness, he develops his talents and aptitudes: his thoughts go from “gross disposition” to moral discernment. Their implausibility does not remove the stirrings of fear they evoke perhaps because we innately recognise that this is what the world would feel like if we lacked the innate category of ‘the Other’. in anthropology and philosophy, primarily through Levinas and Derrida.

It is because man is moved by a personal interest that he stands against other men, this phenomenon creates stimulation, the emulation between men. There you can train her, like a briskly efficient au pair, to take control of your multiple electronic devices, – TVs, ovens, lighting, computers – so that you need only murmur, “Alexa, switch on the TV, please” for your desire to be swiftly satisfied. Yet, as Slavoj Žižek remarked when interviewed in this magazine (PN 122), “something happens with modern philosophy that creates a privileged link with other fields. To separate from egocentrism: to separate from ethnocentrism. We can resist this categorization, but, as with an optical illusion, our perception remains unchanged even after it has been explained. In Lacan’s early work, small ‘a’ designates another person considered as our counterpart, the mirror of ourself, an equal partner in dialogue; whereas the big ‘A’ Other (or ‘Absolute Other’) turns the concept of Otherness into a separate entity - making an ‘Otherness in itself’ as we might say. Other is necessary to the constitution of the self like subject. I recognize it as self-awareness in the same way as me but another is another than me with his desires, his projects … a relationship to the world different from mine. There you can train her, like a briskly efficient au pai… Yet whether or not we accept their truth, the very existence of these psychoanalytic theories demonstrates that this assumption of a fully lucid self-awareness is dubious and requires justification. Since Alexa is a black tube about a quarter of a metre long with a circular light at the top, she would appear to have limitations as an object of erotic devotion. From this derives the fact that I am never able to completely control the meanings conveyed by my words – what I say will always have a tendency to exceed the intentions I have in speaking. Julien Josset, founder. Literature, by contrast, treats “the other” as a Moorean open question, the multifarious nature of whose alterity is illuminated by the endless variety of characters, plots, themes, and permutations which characterizes the literary genre. Is it any surprise that Sartre, for all his literary pretensions, declared hell to be “the other”? For one thing, “the other” is that which is illimitable and inexhaustible. She will also order your groceries, renew your internet subscriptions, and tend to many of the complicated needs of modern life. When happiness is not shared, it is less, when the suffering is not shared it is amplified.
This otherness is present in the thought of Levinas with the notion of Face. Postmodernism, with its love for the fragmentary, the incomplete, and the marginal, enacts, in my view, the fissuring of the philosophy of “the same”, which amounts to the same thing as the destruction of the philosophical “other”. The philosophical “other” is represented, only either to be doubted (Cartesian skepticism), assimilated into “the same” (Hegelian dialectic), or reviled (Nieztschean ethics). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Each man tries to dominate the other, the freedom is without limit, the state of war is permanent. Even as this fails, the attempt itself will modify the nature of the first’s awareness. You may have met her already. She speaks in a soft, unobtrusive, female voice. Other minds continue to be perceived even when they obviously don’t exist, because of the a priori existence of the category of the Other in our thinking. Hegel was the first philosopher following Kant to address specific questions relating to this category.


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